Common ingredients: anti-sapstain treatments

Representative Manufacturers


Used in Product Categories: Flooring, Wood Flooring, Solid Unfinished Wood Flooring, Solid PreFinished Wood Flooring

Content status: Sufficient Content Record

Description: Not provided

Pharos Team Notes:

Organisms in freshly sawn wood can leave a blue-colored fungal stain  -- called sapstain -- that may be unattractive to consumers.  Sapstain does not impact the structural integrity of the wood.

Wood producers frequent apply chemicals to combat blue stain. Many anti-sapstain treatments are multifunctional – these formulations may also control mold and decay fungi in wood products.

The treatments are applied by dip or spray to freshly sawn logs and lumber.  Not all fresh wood is treated.  There are variations by species and climate.  Treatments are most likely in warm or moist climates, and in softwoods and white hardwoods. Lumber going straight into a dry kiln generally is not treated.

Anti-sapstain treatments are considered to be effective for a few weeks, but the chemicals remain in the wood, and small amounts may leach from treated wood over long periods of time.

These formulations have evolved over millennia.  According to wood scientist Mike Freeman, “There is historical evidence that Egyptians used powered Natrum [subcarbonate of soda] to prevent mold growth and stain organisms from infecting sheets of papyrus. In the Shang Dynasty in China some thirty five hundred years ago workers employed wood ash dissolved in water to prevent mold and mildew growth on wood for chopsticks.”

Freeman tracks the evolution of these treatments to more toxic concoctions:

“Historically mercuric compounds, toxic to both man and fungi, launched the ‘modern’ anti-sapstain work some 200 years ago. These mercury formulations included water soluble salts, usually phenol mercuric acetate or phenol mercuric lactate, with a lignosulphonate emulsifier and a co-solvent.  In the 1930s the chlorophenate compounds developed for wood preservation gained prominence for mold and stain control. Furthermore, synergism was found when chlorophenates were combined with borates…. The only problem was that some Cepheloascus fungi were tolerant, but it was found that adding a trace of a mercuric compound to the chlorophenate formulation controlled the complete spectrum of mold and stain organisms.  Chlorophenates, however, began to be reviewed in the 1980s due to the negative publicity concerning compounds such as agent orange and other phenoxy herbicides. New biocides for the anti-sapstain began to replace the chlorophenates which had been used for over half a century.”

The Pharos research team, with assistance from wood flooring manufacturers, identified anti-sapstain formulations in common use today. These ingredients are listed as material contents in this record.

Common active ingredients include 3-iodo-2-propynyl-butylcarbamate (IPBC), propiconazole, isothiazilines, and ammonium chlorides.  These mixtures may also contain solvents and chlorothalonil.  Many wood companies – particularly those in British Columbia – use borate mixtures, such as borax and sodium carbonate.

Anti-sapstain treatments are the only chemical additives that impact Pharos evaluations of manufacturing, community, and user toxicities of unfinished wood flooring.

Direct Content Hazards:

CANCER CA EPA - Prop 65 - Carcinogen - from Chlorothalonil + 14
DEVELOPMENTAL EU - GHS (H-Statements) - H360D - May damage the unborn child - from Propiconazole + 1
REPRODUCTIVE EU - Annex VI CMRs - Reproductive Toxicity - Category 1B - from Propiconazole + 7
GENE MUTATION EU - Annex VI CMRs - Mutagen - Category 1B - from Naphtha + 6
PERSISTENT EC - CEPA DSL - Persistent - from Chlorothalonil
ENDOCRINE TEDX - Potential Endocrine Disruptors - Potential Endocrine Disruptor - from 3-IODO-2-PROPYNYL BUTYLCARBAMATE + 1
RESPIRATORY AOEC - Asthmagens - Asthmagen (Rs) - sensitizer-induced - from Chlorothalonil + 4
MAMMALIAN EU - GHS (H-Statements) - H330 - Fatal if inhaled - from Chlorothalonil + 50
EYE IRRITATION EU - GHS (H-Statements) - H318 - Causes serious eye damage - from 3-IODO-2-PROPYNYL BUTYLCARBAMATE + 12
SKIN IRRITATION EU - GHS (H-Statements) - H314 - Causes severe skin burns and eye damage - from Didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride + 13
SKIN SENSITIZE MAK - Sensitizing Substance Sh - Danger of skin sensitization - from 3-IODO-2-PROPYNYL BUTYLCARBAMATE + 9
ORGAN TOXICANT EU - GHS (H-Statements) - H372 - Causes damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure - from 3-IODO-2-PROPYNYL BUTYLCARBAMATE + 18
ACUTE AQUATIC EU - GHS (H-Statements) - H400 - Very toxic to aquatic life - from 3-IODO-2-PROPYNYL BUTYLCARBAMATE + 12
TERRESTRIAL New Zealand - GHS - 9.3A - Very ecotoxic to terrestrial vertebrates - from METHYLCHLOROISOTHIAZOLINONE (CIT, CMIT) + 3
CHRON AQUATIC Japan - GHS - Hazardous to the aquatic environment (chronic) - Category 4 - from SODIUM BORATE (BORAX) + 15
FLAMMABLE EU - GHS (H-Statements) - H226 - Flammable liquid and vapour - from 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene + 6
REACTIVE Québec CSST - WHMIS 1988 - Class E - Corrosive materials - from Sodium carbonate
RESTRICTED LIST US EPA - DfE SCIL - Yellow Triangle - best available in class but some hazard profile issues - from METHYLCHLOROISOTHIAZOLINONE (CIT, CMIT) + 9
MULTIPLE Québec CSST - WHMIS 1988 - Class D2B - Toxic material causing other toxic effects - from SODIUM BORATE (BORAX) + 6
NEUROTOXICITY Boyes - Neurotoxicants - Neurotoxic - from SODIUM BORATE (BORAX) + 1
POSITIVE LIST US EPA - DfE SCIL - Green Circle - Verified Low Concern - from Sodium carbonate

Potential Residual Hazards:

See Process Chemistry Research tab for details on residuals and other substances used in manufacture.

PBT US EPA - Priority PBTs (NWMP) - Priority PBT - from ACENAPHTHENE + 4
CANCER CA EPA - Prop 65 - Carcinogen - from NAPHTHALENE + 26
REPRODUCTIVE Japan - GHS - Toxic to reproduction - Category 1B - from PHENOL + 3
PERSISTENT EC - CEPA DSL - Persistent - from SODIUM CHLORIDE + 2
ENDOCRINE ChemSec - SIN List - Endocrine Disruption - from NAPHTHALENE + 2
GENE MUTATION MAK - Germ Cell Mutagen 3a - from BENZ[A]ANTHRACENE + 11
MAMMALIAN US EPA - EPCRA Extremely Hazardous Substances - Extremely Hazardous Substances - from PHENOL + 42
EYE IRRITATION Japan - GHS - Serious eye damage / eye irritation - Category 1 - from PHENOL + 7
SKIN IRRITATION EU - GHS (H-Statements) - H314 - Causes severe skin burns and eye damage - from PHENOL + 9
SKIN SENSITIZE Japan - GHS - Skin sensitizer - Category 1 - from NAPHTHALENE + 4
ACUTE AQUATIC EU - GHS (H-Statements) - H400 - Very toxic to aquatic life - from NAPHTHALENE + 11
CHRON AQUATIC Malaysia - GHS - H410 - Very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects - from NAPHTHALENE + 12
TERRESTRIAL New Zealand - GHS - 9.3A - Very ecotoxic to terrestrial vertebrates - from METHYLCHLOROISOTHIAZOLINONE (CIT, CMIT) + 3
FLAMMABLE EU - GHS (H-Statements) - H225 - Highly flammable liquid and vapour - from PYRIDINE + 9
ORGAN TOXICANT EU - GHS (H-Statements) - H373 - May cause damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure - from PHENOL + 16
REACTIVE Québec CSST - WHMIS 1988 - Class E - Corrosive materials - from PHENOL
RESTRICTED LIST US EPA - DfE SCIL - Yellow Triangle - best available in class but some hazard profile issues - from METHYLCHLOROISOTHIAZOLINONE (CIT, CMIT) + 18
MULTIPLE Québec CSST - WHMIS 1988 - Class D2A - Very toxic material causing other toxic effects - from NAPHTHALENE + 9
NEUROTOXICITY G&L - Neurotoxic Chemicals - Neurotoxic - from PHENOL
BIOACCUMULATIVE US EPA - PPT Chemical Action Plans - Low bioaccumulation potential - TSCA Criteria met - from NAPHTHALENE + 1
POSITIVE LIST US EPA - DfE SCIL - Green Circle - Verified Low Concern - from SODIUM CHLORIDE

Common Contents:

Material % Wt. Part % Wt. Whole Hazard GreenScreen Renewable
Substance Residual Manufacturing
[7173-51-5] Didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride
(Optional - Default)
30.00 - 75.00 % 30.00 - 75.00 %   LT-P1
[132-27-4] Sodium o-phenylphenate
(Optional - Default)
20.00 - 25.00 % 20.00 - 25.00 %   LT-1
[1897-45-6] Chlorothalonil
(Optional - Default)
10.00 - 15.00 % 10.00 - 15.00 %     LT-1
[6317-18-6] METHYLENE THIOCYANATE
(Optional - Default)
10.00 - 15.00 % 10.00 - 15.00 %     LT-P1
[1303-96-4] SODIUM BORATE (BORAX)
(Optional - Default)
1.00 - 50.00 % 1.00 - 50.00 %   LT-1
[12179-04-3] SODIUM TETRABORATE PENTAHYDRATE
(Optional - Default)
1.00 - 50.00 % 1.00 - 50.00 %   LT-1
[497-19-8] Sodium carbonate
(Optional - Default)
1.00 - 50.00 % 1.00 - 50.00 %     LT-P1
[8030-30-6] Naphtha
(Optional - Default)
1.00 - 30.00 % 1.00 - 30.00 %       LT-1
[95-63-6] 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene
(Optional - Default)
1.00 - 3.00 % 1.00 - 3.00 %     2
[55406-53-6] 3-IODO-2-PROPYNYL BUTYLCARBAMATE
(Optional - Default)
0.50 - 10.00 % 0.50 - 10.00 %       2
[60207-31-0] Azaconazole
(Optional - Default)
0.50 - 5.00 % 0.50 - 5.00 %   LT-UNK
[60207-90-1] Propiconazole
(Optional - Default)
0.50 - 5.00 % 0.50 - 5.00 %     LT-1
[26172-55-4] METHYLCHLOROISOTHIAZOLINONE (CIT, CMIT)
(Optional - Default)
0.10 - 15.00 % 0.10 - 15.00 %   LT-P1
[26530-20-1] OCTHILINONE
(Optional - Default)
0.10 - 5.00 % 0.10 - 5.00 %   LT-P1
[2682-20-4] METHYLISOTHIAZOLINONE (MIT)
(Optional - Default)
0.00 - 5.00 % 0.00 - 5.00 %       2
[20018-09-1] Diiodomethyl p-tolyl sulfone
(Optional - Default)
0.00 - 1.00 % 0.00 - 1.00 %   LT-P1

Process Chemistry - Known or Potential Residuals:

Material Hazard Type Frequency % Wt. Part % Wt. Whole Notes
Substance Residual Manufacturing
[83-32-9] ACENAPHTHENE - from Naphtha     Component Frequent Unknown Unknown
[26172-55-4] METHYLCHLOROISOTHIAZOLINONE (CIT, CMIT) - from METHYLISOTHIAZOLINONE (MIT)   Component Integral Unknown Unknown
[91-20-3] NAPHTHALENE - from Naphtha       Component Frequent Unknown Unknown
[65996-89-6] COAL TAR       Reactant Integral (known) Unknown Unknown
[56-55-3] BENZ[A]ANTHRACENE     Component Frequent (known) Unknown Unknown
[108-95-2] PHENOL - from Naphtha     Component Frequent Unknown Unknown
[110-86-1] PYRIDINE - from Naphtha   Component Frequent Unknown Unknown
[7647-14-5] SODIUM CHLORIDE - from 3-IODO-2-PROPYNYL BUTYLCARBAMATE   Pollutant/ Contaminant Frequent 0.00 - 0.90 % Unknown

Process Chemistry - Other:

Material Hazard Type Frequency % Wt. Part % Wt. Whole Notes
Substance Residual Manufacturing
[41253-21-8] 1H-1,2,4-triazole, sodium salt - from Propiconazole   Reactant Frequent Unknown Unknown
[2631-72-3] 2-bromo-2',4'-dichloroacetophenone - from Propiconazole   Reactant Frequent Unknown Unknown
[7664-41-7] AMMONIA - from Sodium carbonate       Reactant Frequent Unknown Unknown
[124-38-9] CARBON DIOXIDE - from Sodium carbonate   Reactant Frequent Unknown Unknown
[7782-50-5] CHLORINE - from Chlorothalonil     Reactant Integral Unknown Unknown
[1317-65-3] LIMESTONE, CALCIUM CARBONATE - from Sodium carbonate       Reactant Frequent Unknown Unknown
[626-17-5] M-PHTHALODINITRILE - from Chlorothalonil   Reactant Frequent Unknown Unknown
[74-95-3] METHYLENE BROMIDE - from METHYLENE THIOCYANATE   Reactant Integral Unknown Unknown
[68-12-2] N,N-DIMETHYLFORMAMIDE - from Propiconazole   Solvent Integral Unknown Unknown
[5343-92-0] pentane-1,2-diol - from Propiconazole   Reactant Frequent Unknown Unknown
[533-96-0] SODIUM SESQUICARBONATE - from Sodium carbonate   Reactant Frequent Unknown Unknown
[540-72-7] THIOCYANATE SODIUM - from METHYLENE THIOCYANATE     Reactant Integral Unknown Unknown

GreenScreen for Safer Chemicals Full Assessment: None available

Highest concern GreenScreen score : LT-1 (Likely Benchmark 1)

Cradle to Cradle Certified™ List Hazards

What are C2C hazards and what do these colors mean?

How to Use These Scores in a C2C Assessment

Acute and Chronic Tox. Acute Aquatic Tox. Chronic Aquatic Tox.
C M R+D E O D I O/D/I N IrS+IrE SnS+SnR Fish Inv. Alg. Any Fish Inv. Alg. Any T P B Climate Organohalogen Toxic Metal Other Mult
R R R R/Y R R R R R/Y/G R R ? ? ? R ? ? ? R ? R/Y - G R NL R/Y R

Full Hazard List By Endpoint:

Carcinogenicity Australia - GHS - H351 - Suspected of causing cancer: Red
CA EPA - Prop 65 - Carcinogen: Red
EU - Annex VI CMRs - Carcinogen Category 2 - Suspected human Carcinogen: Red
EU - GHS (H-Statements) - H351 - Suspected of causing cancer: Red
IARC - Group 2B - Possibly carcinogenic to humans: Red
Japan - GHS - Carcinogenicity - Category 2: Red
Korea - GHS - Carcinogenicity - Category 2 [H351 - Suspected of causing cancer]: Red
New Zealand - GHS - 6.7B - Suspected human carcinogens: Not rated
Australia - GHS - H350 - May cause cancer: Red
EU - Annex VI CMRs - Carcinogen Category 1B - Presumed Carcinogen based on animal evidence: Red
EU - GHS (H-Statements) - H350 - May cause cancer: Red
EU - REACH Annex XVII CMRs - Carcinogen Category 2 - Substances which should be regarded as if they are Carcinogenic to man: Red
Malaysia - GHS - H350 - May cause cancer: Red
US EPA - IRIS Carcinogens - (1999) Data are inadequate for an assessment of human carcinogenic potential: Red, Yellow, or Green
MAK - Carcinogen Group 4 - Non-genotoxic carcinogen with low risk under MAK/BAT levels: Yellow
Mutagenicity Australia - GHS - H340 - May cause genetic defects: Red
EU - Annex VI CMRs - Mutagen - Category 1B: Red
EU - GHS (H-Statements) - H340 - May cause genetic defects: Red
EU - REACH Annex XVII CMRs - Mutagen Category 2 - Substances which should be regarded as if they are Mutagenic to man: Red
Korea - GHS - Germ cell mutagenicity - Category 2 [H341 - Suspected of causing genetic defects]: Red
Australia - GHS - H341 - Suspected of causing genetic defects: Red
New Zealand - GHS - 6.6B - Suspected human mutagens: Not rated
Reproductive Toxicity (Repro + Dev) MAK - Pregnancy Risk Group C: Red, Yellow, or Green
Japan - GHS - Toxic to reproduction - Category 2: Red
EU - GHS (H-Statements) - H360D - May damage the unborn child: Red
Australia - GHS - H360Fd - May damage fertility. Suspected of damaging the unborn child: Red
Japan - GHS - Toxic to reproduction - Category 1B: Red
EU - SVHC Authorisation List - Toxic to reproduction - Candidate list: Not rated
EU - SVHC Authorisation List - Toxic to reproduction - Prioritized for listing: Not rated
New Zealand - GHS - 6.8B - Suspected human reproductive or developmental toxicants: Not rated
Endocrine Disruption TEDX - Potential Endocrine Disruptors - Potential Endocrine Disruptor: Red or Yellow
EU - Priority Endocrine Disruptors - Category 3b (Substances with no or insufficient data gathered): Red, Yellow, or Green
Oral Toxicity New Zealand - GHS - 6.1E (oral) - Acutely toxic: Not rated
Australia - GHS - H302 - Harmful if swallowed: Red or Yellow
EU - GHS (H-Statements) - H302 - Harmful if swallowed: Red or Yellow
New Zealand - GHS - 6.1D (oral) - Acutely toxic: Not rated
New Zealand - GHS - 6.9B (oral) - Harmful to human target organs or systems (Cat. 2): Not rated
New Zealand - GHS - 6.1C (oral) - Acutely toxic: Not rated
New Zealand - GHS - 6.9A (oral) - Toxic to human target organs or systems (Cat. 1): Not rated
Japan - GHS - Acute toxicity (oral) - Category 3: Red
Korea - GHS - Acute toxicity (oral) - Category 3 [H301 - Toxic if swallowed]: Red
Australia - GHS - H301 - Toxic if swallowed: Red
New Zealand - GHS - 6.1B (oral) - Acutely toxic: Not rated
EU - GHS (H-Statements) - H301 - Toxic if swallowed: Red
Australia - GHS - H304 - May be fatal if swallowed and enters airways: Red
EU - GHS (H-Statements) - H304 - May be fatal if swallowed and enters airways: Red
Malaysia - GHS - H304 - May be fatal if swallowed and enters airways: Red
Japan - GHS - Acute toxicity (oral) - Category 4: Yellow
Korea - GHS - Acute toxicity (oral) - Category 4 [H302 - Harmful if swallowed]: Yellow
Dermal Toxicity New Zealand - GHS - 6.9B (dermal) - Harmful to human target organs or systems (Cat. 2): Not rated
Australia - GHS - H312 - Harmful in contact with skin: Red or Yellow
Australia - GHS - H311 - Toxic in contact with skin: Red
Korea - GHS - Acute toxicity (dermal) - Category 1 [H310 - Fatal in contact with skin]: Red
New Zealand - GHS - 6.1B (dermal) - Acutely toxic: Not rated
Korea - GHS - Acute toxicity (dermal) - Category 3 [H311 - Toxic in contact with skin]: Red
EU - GHS (H-Statements) - H311 - Toxic in contact with skin: Red
Japan - GHS - Acute toxicity (dermal) - Category 3: Red
New Zealand - GHS - 6.1C (dermal) - Acutely toxic: Not rated
Inhalative Toxicity Australia - GHS - H332 - Harmful if inhaled: Red or Yellow
EU - GHS (H-Statements) - H332 - Harmful if inhaled: Red or Yellow
Australia - GHS - H335 - May cause respiratory irritation: Yellow
EU - GHS (H-Statements) - H335 - May cause respiratory irritation: Yellow
New Zealand - GHS - 6.1D (inhalation) - Acutely toxic: Not rated
New Zealand - GHS - 6.9B (inhalation) - Harmful to human target organs or systems (Cat. 2): Not rated
Australia - GHS - H331 - Toxic if inhaled: Red
EU - GHS (H-Statements) - H331 - Toxic if inhaled: Red
New Zealand - GHS - 6.1C (inhalation) - Acutely toxic: Not rated
Australia - GHS - H330 - Fatal if inhaled: Red
EU - GHS (H-Statements) - H330 - Fatal if inhaled: Red
Japan - GHS - Acute toxicity (inhalation: dust, mist) - Category 2: Red
Korea - GHS - Acute toxicity (inhalation) - Category 2 [H330 - Fatal if inhaled]: Red
Korea - GHS - Specific target organ toxicity - Single exposure - Category 3 [H335 - May cause respiratory irritation]: Yellow
New Zealand - GHS - 6.1B (inhalation) - Acutely toxic: Not rated
Korea - GHS - Acute toxicity (inhalation) - Category 3 [H331 - Toxic if inhaled]: Red
Japan - GHS - Acute toxicity (inhalation: dust, mist) - Category 1: Red
Japan - GHS - Acute toxicity (inhalation: dust, mist) - Category 3: Red
Japan - GHS - Acute toxicity (inhalation: dust, mist) - Category 4: Yellow
New Zealand - GHS - 6.1E (inhalation) - Acutely toxic: Not rated
Oral, Dermal, and/or Inhalative Toxicity Japan - GHS - Specific target organs/systemic toxicity following repeated exposure - Category 2: Yellow
Japan - GHS - Specific target organs/systemic toxicity following single exposure - Category 3: Green
Japan - GHS - Specific target organs/systemic toxicity following repeated exposure - Category 1: Red
Australia - GHS - H372 - Causes damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure: Red
EU - GHS (H-Statements) - H372 - Causes damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure: Red
Japan - GHS - Specific target organs/systemic toxicity following single exposure - Category 1: Red
Korea - GHS - Specific target organ toxicity - Repeated exposure - Category 2 [H373 - May cause damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure]: Yellow
Japan - GHS - Specific target organs/systemic toxicity following single exposure - Category 2: Yellow
Neurotoxicity Boyes - Neurotoxicants - Neurotoxic: Red, Yellow, or Green
Skin, Eye, and Respiratory Corrosion/Irritation Australia - GHS - H315 - Causes skin irritation: Yellow
Australia - GHS - H319 - Causes serious eye irritation: Yellow
EU - GHS (H-Statements) - H315 - Causes skin irritation: Yellow
EU - GHS (H-Statements) - H319 - Causes serious eye irritation: Yellow
New Zealand - GHS - 6.3B - Mildly irritating to the skin: Not rated
New Zealand - GHS - 6.4A - Irritating to the eye (Cat. 2A): Not rated
Japan - GHS - Serious eye damage / eye irritation - Category 2B: Yellow
Japan - GHS - Skin corrosion / irritation - Category 2: Yellow
Australia - GHS - H318 - Causes serious eye damage: Red
EU - GHS (H-Statements) - H318 - Causes serious eye damage: Red
Korea - GHS - Serious eye damage/irritation - Category 1 [H318 - Causes serious eye damage]: Red
Japan - GHS - Serious eye damage / eye irritation - Category 2A: Yellow
New Zealand - GHS - 8.3A - Corrosive to ocular tissue (Cat. 1): Not rated
Australia - GHS - H314 - Causes severe skin burns and eye damage: Red
EU - GHS (H-Statements) - H314 - Causes severe skin burns and eye damage: Red
Japan - GHS - Serious eye damage / eye irritation - Category 1: Red
Japan - GHS - Skin corrosion / irritation - Category 1C: Red
Korea - GHS - Skin corrosion/irritation - Category 1 [H314 - Causes severe skin burns and eye damage]: Red
New Zealand - GHS - 8.2B - Corrosive to dermal tissue (Cat. 1B): Not rated
Japan - GHS - Skin corrosion / irritation - Category 1: Red
New Zealand - GHS - 8.2C - Corrosive to dermal tissue (Cat. 1C): Not rated
Japan - GHS - Serious eye damage / eye irritation - Category 2: Yellow or Green
New Zealand - GHS - 6.3A - Irritating to the skin (Cat. 2): Not rated
Skin and Respiratory Sensitization Australia - GHS - H317 - May cause an allergic skin reaction: Red
EU - GHS (H-Statements) - H317 - May cause an allergic skin reaction: Red
MAK - Sensitizing Substance Sh - Danger of skin sensitization: Red
New Zealand - GHS - 6.5B (contact) - Contact sensitisers (Cat. 1): Not rated
AOEC - Asthmagens - Asthmagen (Rs) - sensitizer-induced: Red
Japan - GHS - Skin sensitizer - Category 1: Red
Korea - GHS - Skin sensitization - Category 1 [H317 - May cause an allergic skin reaction]: Red
AOEC - Asthmagens - Asthmagen (A) - expert listed pending AEOC review: Not rated
CHE - Toxicant Database - Asthma - allergen, sensitizer - strong evidence: Not rated
CHE - Toxicant Database - Asthma - irritant - limited evidence: Not rated
Quebec CSST - Asthma Agents - Agent Causing Occupational Asthma: Not rated
Japan - GHS - Skin sensitization - Category 1A: Red
Acute Aquatic Toxicity (Fish) New Zealand - GHS - 9.1A (fish) - Very ecotoxic in the aquatic environment: Not rated
New Zealand - GHS - 9.1C (fish) - Harmful in the aquatic environment: Not rated
Acute Aquatic Toxicity (Invertibrates) New Zealand - GHS - 9.1A (crustacean) - Very ecotoxic in the aquatic environment: Not rated
Acute Aquatic Toxicity (Algae) New Zealand - GHS - 9.1A (algal) - Very ecotoxic in the aquatic environment: Not rated
Acute Aquatic Toxicity (Fish, Invertibrates, and/or Algae) Japan - GHS - Hazardous to the aquatic environment (acute) - Category 2: Red
EU - GHS (H-Statements) - H400 - Very toxic to aquatic life: Red
New Zealand - GHS - 9.1A (other) - Very ecotoxic in the aquatic environment: Not rated
Japan - GHS - Hazardous to the aquatic environment (acute) - Category 1: Red
Korea - GHS - Hazardous to the aquatic environment (acute) - Category 1 [H400 - Very toxic to aquatic life]: Red
Australia - GHS - H400 - Very toxic to aquatic life: Red
New Zealand - GHS - 9.1D (other) - Slightly harmful in the aquatic environment or are otherwise designed for biocidal action: Not rated
Chronic Aquatic Toxicity (Fish) New Zealand - GHS - 9.1B (fish) - Very ecotoxic in the aquatic environment: Not rated
New Zealand - GHS - 9.1D (fish) - Slightly harmful in the aquatic environment or are otherwise designed for biocidal action: Not rated
Chronic Aquatic Toxicity (Invertibrates) New Zealand - GHS - 9.1B (crustacean) - Very ecotoxic in the aquatic environment: Not rated
New Zealand - GHS - 9.1C (crustacean) - Harmful in the aquatic environment: Not rated
Chronic Aquatic Toxicity (Algae) New Zealand - GHS - 9.1B (algal) - Very ecotoxic in the aquatic environment: Not rated
Chronic Aquatic Toxicity (Fish, Invertibrates, and/or Algae) Australia - GHS - H411 - Toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects: Red
EU - GHS (H-Statements) - H411 - Toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects: Red
Japan - GHS - Hazardous to the aquatic environment (chronic) - Category 2: Not rated
Australia - GHS - H410 - Very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects: Red
EU - GHS (H-Statements) - H410 - Very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects: Red
Korea - GHS - Hazardous to the aquatic environment (chronic) - Category 1 [H410 - Very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects]: Red
Japan - GHS - Hazardous to the aquatic environment (chronic) - Category 1: Not rated
Japan - GHS - Hazardous to the aquatic environment (chronic) - Category 4: Yellow
Terrestrial New Zealand - GHS - 9.3C - Harmful to terrestrial vertebrates: Not rated
New Zealand - GHS - 9.3B - Ecotoxic to terrestrial vertebrates: Not rated
New Zealand - GHS - 9.2C - Harmful in the soil environment: Not rated
New Zealand - GHS - 9.3A - Very ecotoxic to terrestrial vertebrates: Not rated
Persistence EC - CEPA DSL - Persistent: Red or Yellow
Bioaccumulation not listed
Climatic Relevance not listed
Organohalogen HALOGENATED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
Toxic Metal not listed - This chemical is not on the Pharos list of toxic metals, but we may have missed a few. Please double-check the chemical structure to confirm there are no toxic metals.
Other (Human Health) Australia - GHS - H226 - Flammable liquid and vapour: Yellow
EU - GHS (H-Statements) - H226 - Flammable liquid and vapour: Yellow
Japan - GHS - Flammable liquids - Category 3: Yellow
Québec CSST - WHMIS 1988 - Class B3 - Combustible liquids: Yellow
New Zealand - GHS - 3.1C - Flammable Liquids: medium hazard: Not rated
Québec CSST - WHMIS 1988 - Class B2 - Flammable liquids: Red or Yellow
Multiple Endpoints German FEA - Substances Hazardous to Waters - Class 2 - Hazard to Waters: Red
EC - CEPA DSL - Inherently Toxic in the Environment: Red
German FEA - Substances Hazardous to Waters - Class 3 - Severe Hazard to Waters: Red
EC - CEPA DSL - Inherently Toxic to Humans (iT human): Red
ChemSec - SIN List - CMR - Carcinogen, Mutagen &/or Reproductive Toxicant: Red
EU - Annex VI CMRs - Reproductive Toxicity - Category 1B: Red
EU - GHS (H-Statements) - H360FD - May damage fertility. May damage the unborn child: Red
German FEA - Substances Hazardous to Waters - Class 1 - Low Hazard to Waters: Red
Québec CSST - WHMIS 1988 - Class D2B - Toxic material causing other toxic effects: Red
Québec CSST - WHMIS 1988 - Class E - Corrosive materials: Red
  • "Chemical Modification of Wood" (Roger Rowell/USDA)
  • AntiBlu XP-Quattro Protection data sheet
  • AntiBlu(R) F2 Concentrate Product Stewardship Summary, Dec. 2009 (Arch Chemicals)
  • Environment Canada (1999): ASSESSING THE POTENTIAL IMPACT OF THE ANTISAPSTAIN CHEMICALS, DDAC AND IPBC, IN THE FRASER RIVER
  • Hylite 109 brochure
  • Life-Cycle Inventory of Solid Strip Hardwood Flooring in the Eastern United States April 10, 2008 Prepared by: Steven S. Hubbard Scott A. Bowe
  • NP-1 Sapstain Control Concentrate MSDS
  • Pesticide Action Network Pesticides Database
  • Sta Brite P Label
  • Sta Brite P MSDS
  • Survey of Pesticide Use in British Columbia: 1995
  • Teragren Material + Sustainability Report (April 2011)
  • Wood Preservative Formulation Development and Systems: Organic and Inorganic Based Systems (Mike Freeman)